Type II Diabetes Mellitus is associated with increasing complications and decreasing overall life expectancy globally. Vitamin D deficiency is rising equally worldwide. To observe the incidence of Vitamin D deficiency in type II diabetic and healthy subjects and the associated risk factors, an observational study of 150 subjects (100 diabetic and 50 non-diabetic) was conducted. The Ethical Committee approval was taken, and participation was voluntary. A pre-tested oral questionnaire was used to collect data of the subjects from two urban clinics. The data collected included personal information, medical history, anthropometric measurements (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist to hip ratio), biochemical parameters (fasting and postprandial blood sugar level, glycosylated haemoglobin, vitamin D and calcium levels), blood pressure, food frequency questionnaire and 24 hour three day dietary recall. Age group of the subjects was 51-60 years in the experimental and <40 years in the control group. Percentage of females was higher than males in both groups. 87% of the diabetics were overweight. 66% had a higher waist circumference. 93.8% diabetics had glycated haemoglobin levels above 6.5%.Vitamin D and calcium levels were higher in diabetics due to supplementation. 59% of the diabetics showed high blood pressure. Protein intake was less in both the groups. Fat intake was higher in the diabetics (p=.001). The study highlighted that the Vitamin D deficiency is common in type II diabetic patients and has a role to play in glucose metabolism. Low levels of vitamin D status, sun exposure and low intake of proteins (quality and quantity) and increased intake of fats increases the prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus.